Extensive presentation of my speech in ICCF24 conference, July 2022

Christos D. Papageorgiou 


Email: chrpapag@gmail.com

  1. Introduction

Signs of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) phenomena have been observed in various experiments triggering new research. 

Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) phenomena have been observed without the scientific community to present a satisfactory explanation for them:

-Biological transmutations


February 2015 Current Science 108(4):633-635 Jean-Paul Biberian

-Transmutations that occur in many experiments related to the so-called Cold Fusion 


December 7, 2016, Steven B. Krivit and Michael J. Ravnitzky

-Strong explosions of expired Lithium batteries, The explosive problem of ‘zombie’ batteries – BBC News 26 October 2020 


More on explosions


Christopher Cockcroft says

29th March 2022 at 5:51 pm

This problem also applies to proposed Grid Scale electricity storage; already there have been fires and explosions in such. Indeed, it has been postulated that a large Megawatt Grid Scale Battery, could explode with a similar force to the Port of Beirut explosion in 2020.

It could also apply to Home Solar Power storage.

Planners, let alone the public, need to be aware of this risk.

I believe that all the LENR phenomena have the same origin thus the most important thing is to reveal the mechanism by which the LENR phenomenon appear, because if we understand the mechanism, then we can make reproducible LENR experiments 

  1. What is a Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR)
  • LENR is not a Fission Nuclear Reaction or a Fusion Nuclear Reaction 
  • LENR is generated when an electron is entering the nucleus of an atom
  • The electron of proper kinetic energy under proper conditions can go through the Coulomb barrier, enter the nucleus and transform a proton to a neutron, trans-mutating the atom
  • Hence, by LENRs free neutrons can be generated. A free neutron in several minutes can be transformed into a Hydrogen atom by the Electro-weak interaction. 
  1. Linear conducting wires under low intensity electric pulses
  • After thousands of experiments where relatively low-intensity electric pulses were applied on thin linear conducting wires (without wire fragmentation), it was evident that free electrons are moving instantly towards the center of the linear wires [1]
  • The physical explanation for this phenomenon is that the linear wire, which is a container of free electrons, is acting temporarily as a quantum well, where free electrons obeying Schrodinger wave equation Ψ, tend to concentrate on the wire following the overall distribution given by the wavefunction modulus or ΙΨΙ^2
  • The fundamental prevailing harmonic, with a wavelength equal to the wire length, creates a transient standing wave on the linear wire, thus, a transient concentration of free electrons in the center of the linear wire is expected, which in several cases can cause the wire disintegrating in its middle.
  • In pinch experiments with heavy water in an open linear bottle, half of the heavy water was ejected, as our model predicts.
  1. LENR generation due to free electron concentration at the center of wire
  • Considering the experimentally proven (transient) free-electron concentration at the center of the linear wire under a strong electrical pulse, besides other phenomena, the generation of LENR effects becomes possible
  • In order for a free electron to initiate a LENR effect, it should enter the nucleus of an ion in the metallic lattice. The arriving free electrons at the center of the wire, have low kinetic energy that is not enough to overcome the Coulomb barrier of the lattice ions
  • However due to the strong electrostatic field made by the electron concentration in the middle and the Stark effect, the Coulomb barrier of lattice ions is weakened or eliminated, thus the penetration of free electrons in the nucleus of metal lattice ions becomes possible [2]
  • The necessary energy  (>0.78 Mev) for the transmutation of a proton to a neutron is received by the electrostatic field of the positive proton and negative electron
  1. LENR in Deuterium gas under strong electric pulses (pinch)  
  • The generation of neutrons by pinch effect in Deuterium gas trapped inside a cylindrical bottle is a very old technique. There are many papers related to these experiments
  • According to the scientific community neutron generation in pinch experiments is related to the implosion of the generated plasma by the strong magnetic field raised by the strong electric current of the pinch (W.H. Bennett theory 1934).
  • However, as many scientists argue not all the neutrons are of thermonuclear (fusion) origin
  • Deuterium plasma in a cylindrical bottle under a strong pinch behaves transiently as a conducting linear structure of plasma. 
  • Thus, I believe that the generated neutrons during strong pinch experiments have at least partly, a LENR origin [3].
  1. Curved linear wires under electric pulses

The one-dimensional Schrodinger equation in curved wires depends on its local curvature and it can be proved that for certain curved wires the fundamental mode that can initiate LENRs can be generated with a negligible voltage excitation

  • Most probably some spontaneous explosions in expired Lithium batteries are caused by external voltage fields acting on dendrite’s curved threads of pure Lithium 
  • My interpretation of the generation of LENRs in conducting wires or sheets of a proper geometrical shape under electric pulses can be used in order to make LENR fuel pellets by which a proper thermal LENR machine will transform electricity into multiple times output thermal energy  
  • A provisional patent in the USA has already been approved for my company PAP-LENR Inc.  The proposed LENR thermal machine is shown in the next figure 
  1.  PAP-LENR thermal machine details
  • Shortly our LENR thermal machine will use as fuel, small and thin conducting threads or sheets which we briefly refer to as LENR pellets
  • The conducting LENR pellets will be coated with a thin layer of an active material that can create LENR effects when the LENR pellets receive strong electric pulses 
  • By the generated LENR effects we intend to produce thermal energy Q times higher than the electric energy of the electric pulse received, where Q should be for example greater than 10
  •  Our company estimates that for a first LENR thermal machine, the important thing is to achieve a high Q factor and not a high energy generation as in FUSION proposed machines.
  1. How much energy a PAP-LENR thermal machine can generate per gr of LENR fuel
  • Even a very small amount of active LENR material can generate a huge amount of thermal energy, for example, if we assume that the active material is Lithium, for every atom in a LENR, at least one million EVs could be generated.
  • Let us say that the classical chemical reaction of burning carbon with oxygen generates only 4 EVs, thus the great advantage of nuclear reactions is that they generate millions of times more energy than chemical reactions.
  • If we assume that a lithium atom transmuted to Helium during a LENR reaction more than one million EVs of energy will be generated, thus can easily be proven that one gram of lithium will produce 3,8 MWh, this energy would demand 354 cubic meters of NG or 350 liters of diesel to be generated in combustion machines.
  • At current prices lithium costs approximately 400,000 USD/ton, thus one gram of lithium costs about 0.4 USD, by which we can generate 3.8 MWh, thus the fuel cost of any LENR machine, if and whenever they will be built, would be negligible.
  1. Cost of electricity produced by LENR technology
  • The cost of the electricity produced by LENR technology will depend mainly on the cost of the LENR thermal machine which will produce superheated steam, by which a steam turbine will generate electricity.
  • Should also be noted that lithium or similar LENR materials are in abundance and the quantities needed to meet the energy needs of our planet, are for thousands to millions of years. 
  • LENRs will not produce any radioactivity and the effective use of LENR technology could solve the threatening greenhouse effect on our planet.
  1. Preparing the laboratory for LENR fuel pellet tests
  • Our company’s (PAP-LENR Inc) present research intends on testing, in a suitable safe laboratory, LENR pellets that under strong electric pulses will explode.
  • We should notice that some of these explosions may be insignificant but some others could be very strong and dangerous, which is an indication of LENR activity.
  • Our company PAP-LENR Inc. is currently preparing a safe laboratory for experimental testing of various wire or sheet pellets looking for an initial proper LENR pellet fuel 


I would like to mention the fruitful remarks during the writing of the minutes from my close friend and collaborator Theophanes E. Raptis


  • C. D. Papageorgiou, T. E. Raptis “Ionic collisions in metallic lattices under transient current pulses” The European Physical Journal Applied Physics 
  • [2] Christos D. Papageorgiou “Geometry, Quantum Mechanics and low Energy Nuclear Transmutations” International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Technology, Volume 06, Issue 06, June 2020 
  • [3] Christos D. Papageorgiou Quantum interpretation of LENR neutron generation in pinch experiments Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Technology, volume 8, issue 8 , August 2022, pp 25-30